Archive for the “Negative Ion” Category
Posted by rohmat in Far Infrared Rays (FIR), Negative Ion, tags: biofir, cancer, far infrared, fir, health, ion, medical, negative ions, research
There is a vast body of research data accumulating on FIR, with much ongoing scientific investigation being conducted in Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea. Results of these investigations show many hopeful and efficacious clinical improvements in patients receiving FIR treatments of various types. Clinical conditions being treated range from skin lacerations, teen age skin problems, scars and burns; to detoxification of the body from heavy metals, bio-toxins, and toxic gases; to increasing blood circulation and oxygen supply to damaged tissues; to blood pressure reduction due to peripheral vessels dilation. Additional conditions cited in the medical literature include significant relief from serious sunburn; to detoxification in toxic electromagnetic poisoning; to therapeutic improvement in joint stiffness, sprains, muscle pain, and arthritis; to potential use in treating many dental conditions. Treating several serious lung conditions with FIR; reducing stress related syndromes and conditions; and reported positive effects of FIR in treating side effects of installing and wearing artificial limbs; simply add to the promising research to date. A book entitled: The Scientific Basis and Therapeutic Benefits of Far Infrared Therapy, written by Japanese medical doctor, Dr. Toshio Yamazaki, is certainly one excellent resource for citing further possible clinical advantages of using FIR.
• What is especially exciting and positive relative to this field of scientific endeavor is the creation of a Japanese FIR Professional Association , Korea FIR Professional Association and a most-recently incorporated Hong Kong FIR Professional Association (as of 8/11/06) .
• Dr. Tsu Tsair Oliver Chi summarized the effect of infrared rays on the body in these words, “These rays are selectively absorbed by tissues needing a boost in within our tissues is associated with a variety of healing responses and may require a boost to a maximal level to ensure the fullest healing response possible in a tissue, which is being repaired. After boosting a tissue’s level to its maximum, the remaining rays pass onward harmlessly.”
• Japanese researchers report various positive results in application to musculoskeletal cases:
- TMJ Accel-Decel Injury Sequelae
- Traumatic Arthritis Brain Contusion-accelerated healing
- Low Back Pain relieved
- Muscle Spasms-reduced or eliminated
- Disc Protrusion-related Neuralgia Brain Contusion -accelerated healing
- Tight Shoulders-relaxed /Muscle Tension -relaxed
- Bursitis-eliminated/ Shoulder Pain-relieved or eliminated
- Spinal Cord Shock-reversed/ Post-exercise Muscle Pain
- Arthritis: Gouty, Rheumatoid-each substantially relieved or improved
• Medical practitioners make use of Infrared radiant heat to treat sprains, bursitis, peripheral vascular diseases, arthritis and muscle pain,” according to McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology.
• Summary from Therapeutic Heat and Cold, 4th Ed., Ed Justus F. Lehmann M.D.
Generally it is accepted that heat produces the following desirable therapeutic effects:
—— It increases the extensibility of collagen tissues.
• Tissues heated to 45 C exhibit an increase of length in tissues when stretched.
• This effect would be especially valuable in working with ligaments, joint capsules, tendons, fascia and synovium that have become scarred, thickened or contracted.
• Such stretching at 45 C caused much less weakening in stretched tissues than a similar stretching at normal temperatures.
• The experiments cited clearly showed that low-force stretching can produce significant residual elongation when heat is applied together with stretching or range-of-motion exercises, and is also safer than stretching tissues at normal tissue temperatures.
• This safer stretching effect is crucial in properly training competitive athletes so as to minimize their “down” time from injuries.
—— It decreases joint stiffness directly;
—— It relieves muscle spasms;
—— It produces pain relief;
—— It increases blood flow;
—— It assists in resolution of inflammatory infiltrates, edema & exudates;
—— More recently, it has been used in cancer therapy.
• Otto Warburg was nominated for the Nobel Prize in 1944 for research concerning photosynthesis in connection with the chemotherapeutics of cancer and the use of rays. His research has shown that infrared impacts cancer.
• Dr. Masao Nakamura of the O & P Medical Clinic in Japan has reported great success with the use of Infrared treatment for:
—— Whiplash Menopause Shoulder stiffness;
—— Rheumatism Sciatica Arthritis;
—— Insomnia Acne Ear diseases;
—— Gastroenteritis problems.
• Chinese Researchers reported over 90% success in a summary of Chinese studies that assessed the effect of Infrared on:
—— Soft tissue injury Lumbar strain Sciatica;
—— Eczema with infection Cholecystitis-Pelvic infection;
—— Tinea Neurodermatitis Diarrhea;
—— Neurasthenia Pediatric pneumonia menstrual pain;
—— Periarthritis of the shoulder/post-surgical infections;
—— Facial paralysis (Bell’s Palsy) Frostbite with inflammation.
• 1998 Nobel Prize in Medicine Award Winners Murad, Furchgott & Ignaro found that nitric oxide gas, which is produced, by far infrared, is used by white cells to defend against tumors and allows healing to take place.
• Dr. Valentino Fuster, past president of the American Heart Association, called the nitric oxide discovery “one of the most important discoveries in the history of cardiovascular medicine because it promotes expansion of the capillaries and allows blood to increase circulation in the affected area and to then reduce the risk of heart attacks and strokes.
• Dr. Lon R. Horwitz reports in Augmentation of Wound Healing Using Monochromatic Infrared Energy; Advances in Wound Care; author’s unpublished research, that a FIR energy modality increases nitric acid in the blood and plasma of normal adult subjects. A 1999 publication by Dr. Horwitz strongly suggests that Far Infrared produces nitric oxide gas, which aided in the recovery of the five patients in a study, who could not get healing conventionally. They had various diabetic problems and were not able to heal, but they received the nitric oxide technology produced by the FIR, and healing took place for all of them.
When you apply FIR technology, these researchers report seeing healing results from the production of nitric oxide by the hemoglobin due to the reaction of the photons of the FIR on the enzymes, which produces the nitric oxide gas. The immune cells get into the area and the circulation is increased. Pain is reduced, and the area then is reported to have the immune cells necessary to get complete healing.
• The wide-ranging results of nitric oxide may pay off in new treatments for:
—— Atherosclerosis (a thickening of artery walls);
—— Septic shock (a dangerous drop in blood pressure);
The Infrared protocol has been instituted after conventional management protocols were shown to be ineffective in wound healing. The rate and quality of healing of these previously refractory wounds, following use of FIR energy, may be related to local increases in nitric oxide concentration. Increases in nitric oxide previously have been demonstrated to correlate with vasodilatory and anabolic responses.
Additional research has suggested that FIR heat produces therapeutic effects in the following:
Short-term memory reportedly improved/accelerated repair in brain contusions;
Cerebral hemorrhages healing with FIR both speeds up and is significantly enhanced.
—— Collagen Tissues
Helps Ligaments /Joint capsules /Tendons;
In Fascia Synovium, FIR allegedly increases range of motion;
FIR reportedly can assist in treatment of scarred, thickened or contracted tissues;
Can increase extensibility of collagen tissues.
—— Body Tissues
Reduces acidity in the body (FIR causes fruit to ripen faster by reducing acidity).
Neurasthenia –FIR reportedly adjusts autonomic nerve function;
Reportedly FIR reduces over-stimulation of sensory nerves.
FIR attracts calcium ions to the cellular level;
FIR promotes adhesion and osmosis of water molecules across the cellular membrane;
FIR stimulates enzyme activity.
Supposedly assists in reduction of swelling and inflammation by improving lymph flow;
Purportedly decreases joint stiffness directly.
—— Pain Relief
FIR reportedly reduces neuralgia headache pain during menstruation;
May lead to increased endorphin production, which reduces pain.
—— Conditions Affected by Circulation
Reportedly increases blood flow by promoting dilation of capillaries;
Reportedly reduces clogged capillary vessels in hypertension arteriosclerosis;
Reportedly affects high blood pressure/low blood pressure in coronary artery disease;
Can reportedly reduce arthritis sciatica backaches;
Can be positive in treating hemorrhoids/nervous tension/diabetes;
May be useful in treating varicose veins/neuritis bursitis;
Can be effective with rheumatism /strained muscles/fatigue;
Can reduce stretch marks/menstrual cramps/upset stomach;
Can reduce negative symptoms of piles/poor peripheral circulation.
Fir may be effective in treating atherosclerosis (thickening of artery walls due to fatty deposits)
May assist with septic shock (dangerous drop of blood pressure)
—— Research by NASA in the early 1980′s led to the conclusion that infrared stimulation of cardiovascular function would be the ideal way to maintain cardiovascular conditioning in American astronauts during long space flights. As the body works to cool itself, there is a substantial increase in heart rate, cardiac output and metabolic rate, and blood flow rises.
—— Inflammatory infiltrates, edema, and exudates
Reportedly reduces edema of the joints/inflammation of joints/tendonitis
Can positively influence sprain joint stiffness/peripheral occlusive disease
Can reduce the symptoms of gout
Can reportedly speed up healing / Reports of treatment with infrared have been so successful that hospital stays were reported to have been reduced by 25%.
FIR has possible efficacy in cancer therapy/cancer of the tongue
FIR may assist in treating radiation sickness/seems to relieve signs & symptoms
Suggested efficacy in treating cancer pain/paid reportedly relieved in later stages of cancer
FIR heat can penetrate through the body and will reportedly kill cancerous cells
(Cancerous cells cannot exist if blood circulation is smooth. Good circulation in
the capillaries leave no room for a cancerous cell to settle down. (A cancerous cell
has to settle down so it can proliferate.) FIR helps capillaries to expand,
improving circulation. The cancer cell also has a weakness: heat above 42 deg C
can kill it. FIR heat can reportedly penetrate through the body and kill cancerous
cells. FIR treatment raises body temperature. FIR therapy can reportedly alleviate
pain and prolong life when conventional cancer treatment fails. Surgery,
radiotherapy and chemotherapy are considered detrimental to health, since they
are invasive treatments. FIR therapy and immuno-therapy are currently regarded
as non-invasive. FIR may be very beneficial).
• Dr. John Tate, DDS, is quoted as saying; “I have used the FIR dome with over fifty high risk surgical cases without complication or dry sockets on 92% of the patient. They get what we call complete healing. The macrophages produce collagen necessary to stimulate the fibroblasts, and the tissue of the fibroblasts then will stimulate the osteoblast-which is bone. That is where the bone forms and it starts in the first three days – but it takes about six months for complete healing. The two main cells we need in dentistry and in surgery around the bone area are the macrophages and the neutrophils” (which are activated by far infrared heat).
“The macrophage is called the “pac man” of the immune system. The macrophage is a cell that engulfs and digests microorganisms. Everything starts with the macrophage – “macro” meaning big and “phage” meaning eater. So we have a big eater here. The tentacle on the macrophage grabs the staphylococci and a bacillus rod, and that macrophage extends a pseudo paw to get the bacteria that is now invading our blood!”
—— Immune System
FIR may assist in pelvic infection/post-surgical infection;
FIR may be an efficacious treatment in toe-and-finger-nail fungus;
[There is an immune response facilitated by the photons of the FIR technology that turns on the enzyme system, particularly the nitric oxide synthase enzyme. More white blood cells means greater immune function and resistance to disease and viruses. It is well established medically that this is the mechanism involved in the FIR technology. One autoimmune disease which may be assisted by FIR is Scleraderma (an autoimmune disease where collagen builds up and healing cannot take place because the circulation can’t get to the area due to the buildup of the collagen).]
—— Problems that may accompany aging and may be assisted by FIR treatment
Menopause/ cold hands & feet/high blood pressure
Rheumatoid arthritis/radiation sickness/sequelae of strokes
Benign prostatic hypertrophy/pain which affects ability to sleep
Pain from a metal joint implant/speeds healing of joint implants
Compression fracture pain
—— Diseases of organs which may be assisted by FIR treatment
Duodenal ulcers/hepatitis gastritis
Cirrhosis of liver/hemorrhoids/asthma
Bronchitis/Crohn’s Disease/post-surgical adhesions
Gastric and duodenal ulcers/stomach ache/gastroenteric
Reduces density of uric acid/cholecystitis
—— Ear, nose and throat conditions that might be assisted by FIR treatment
Chronic middle-ear inflammation & infection
Tinitus chronic (one reported severe case cleared with 10 FIR treatments )
—— Respiratory conditions possibly assisted by FIR treatment
—— Skin conditions that may be assisted by FIR treatment
Clogged pores/poor skin tone/open wounds
Laceration/body odor/loosens dead outer skin
Rashes/removes roughness/improves skin tone
Leg & decubitus ulcers improved, when previously resistant to other care
Dandruff due to increased blood flow through the scalp
Burns-scars and pain from burns and wounds are decreased in severity and extent. FIR therapy is used routinely in burn units throughout Asia.
Keloids-significantly softened and in some cases completely gone
Acne-FIR may open pores that have not been functioning in years
Sunburn – FIR radiations are the only antidote to excessive ultraviolet radiation, according to Clayton’s Electrotherapy, Ninth Ed.
—— Musculoskeletal conditions possibly assisted by FIR treatment
Arthritis/Accel-decel injury sequelae /brain contusion
Lumbago/relieves muscle spasms/TMJ/arthritis
Muscle tension/spinal cord shock/post-exercise muscle pain
Bursitis/muscle spasms/knee injuries
Abnormal nerve functions
Back, shoulder, neck and muscle pain
Facial paralysis (Bell’s Palsy)
Reduces muscle spasms as muscle fibers are heated
Great for warming up before exercise
—— Soft Tissue injuries which may be assisted by FIR treatment
Soft tissue injuries-promotes relief in chronic cases/accelerated healing in newer injuries
Auto accident-related soft tissue injury/cellulite
Aids in regeneration of tissue
Reduces soreness through direct action on nerve endings in tissues and on periphery.
—— Weight Loss may be assisted by FIR treatment
Direct excretion of fat. /burns calories/increases metabolism
Weight loss can come through the energy use needed to produce sweating
Cellulite (a gel-like substance made up of fat, water and wastes, which are trapped in pockets below the skin). FIR heat can be significantly more effective than other heat methods, due to the heat penetration being twice the depth into cellulite.
—— Possible reduction of fatty tissue
Two of the highest caloric output forms of exercise are rowing and marathon running. Peak output in these sports burns about 600 calories in 30 minutes. Infrared use may better this effect by burning some 900 calories in a 30-minute session. Thus Infrared might stimulate the consumption of energy equal to that expended in a 6.9 mile run during only a single session.
The cleansing and purifying benefits attributed to the traditional sweat lodges are now available for daily purification without the time-consuming set-up process that a sweat lodge requires. Various FIR domes and FIR sauna products may mimic the sweat lodges.
—— Exercise and conditioning effect
An infrared system can play a pivotal role in both weight control and cardiovascular conditioning. FIR products may assist people in wheelchairs, or those who are otherwise unable to exert themselves or who won’t follow through on an exercise and conditioning program to achieve a cardiovascular training effect. This also allows for more variety in any ongoing training program. Regular use may be as effective, as a means of cardiovascular conditioning and burning of calories, as regular exercise. For athletes, the FIR treatments seem to assist the oxygen-debt to be repaid more quickly. The FIR dome is great for warming up before stretching or starting any vigorous activity. Allow the FIR rays to pour right through your clothing until you just begin to break a sweat. Now you are pre-warmed for stretching, running, skiing in cold weather. This should help to prevent injuries.
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Posted by rohmat in Jantung, Negative Ion, tags: air, damage, health, how, ion, lung, negative, negative ions, pollution, purifier
In addition to causing lung damage, air pollution is now also recognized as a threat to cardiovascular health. Reporting in the March 6, 2002 Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), researchers examined long-term health data on 500,000 individuals to compare increases in air pollution levels with incidence of death. They discovered that when air pollution levels suddenly increased, in addition to expected increases in deaths from asthma, pneumonia, and emphysema, there was an unexpected increase in the number of deaths related to heart attacks and stroke. Most surprising was the finding that when air pollution levels rose, so did deaths from all causes, not just those related to the heart and lungs (Fig. 1).
One possible explanation for the increase in cardiovascular-related deaths is that air pollution causes oxidative stress that, in turn, triggers an inflammatory response in the lungs that leads to the release of chemicals that impair heart function and blood pressure.
This was shown to be the case when scientists working in the Netherlands exposed rats to high levels of particulate air pollution. Following exposure, the researchers found that plasma levels of fibrinogen were elevated by 20 percent, which could presumably increase blood viscosity, leading to decreased tissue blood flow. They also measured a 400 percent jump in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and a 350 percent increase in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in lung fluids. The researchers speculated that as particulates lodge in lung tissues they induce an increase in the production of nitric oxide (NO). Under normal conditions nitric oxide is an important neurotransmitter that aids numerous signaling pathways involved in motor learning, protein modification, arterial dilation and immune defense. But when conditions trigger the overproduction of NO as seen in the Netherlands study, the result is serious damage to the endothelial cells lining the blood vessels of the lungs.
When Japanese researchers exposed guinea pigs to particulates from diesel exhaust, the lungs showed a significant elevation of leukotrienes and eosinophils, two important biomarkers of inflammation and cytotoxicity commonly observed in cases of chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD). The researchers noted that these findings indicate that chronic exposure to diesel exhaust induces continuous inflammation and overproduction of mucus and phospholipids in the lung.
Another mechanism implicated in air pollution-related heart failures involves bone marrow and atherosclerotic plaques. Researchers in Vancouver, British Columbia found that exposure to high levels of air pollution stimulates bone marrow to release leukocytes and platelets that accumulate preferentially in pulmonary capillaries. In addition to causing damage to lung tissues, the researchers also observed that inhalation of particulate pollution causes changes in atherosclerotic plaque lesions that make the deposits more vulnerable to rupture.
They postulated that exposure to particulate air pollution induces a systemic inflammatory response that includes the release of inflammatory mediators that stimulate bone marrow to release leukocytes and platelets, leading to lung inflammation and changes of atherosclerotic plaque, making them more vulnerable to rupture.
Negative Ion Air Purifiers.
As the scope of air pollution related health problems grows, so too does the number of people turning to air purifying solutions for protection. Home air filtration products offer a number of options, including electrostatic, UV radiation, water and advanced HEPA filtration technologies. Until recently, these products—many engineered for entire houses and buildings—were bulky and expensive to install and maintain, placing them out of reach for most people. Recently, a number of consumer products have become available utilizing ion-generating technology to eliminate airborne pollutants, allergens and viruses from immediate breathing spaces.
These devices work by generating a flow of negative ions that charge and bind together airborne particulate matter, which then clumps and precipitates out of the air. Ion generating devices have been shown to be effective against dust, cigarette smoke, pet dander, pollen, mold spores, viruses, and bacteria. In addition to eliminating harmful particulates from the air, negative ions also have a number of unique health benefits.
How Negative Ions Purify the Air ?
Most all particles in the air have a positive charge or are positively ionized, while negative ions have a negative charge. Negative ions are drawn to these positively charged particles by magnetic attraction to one another. When there is a high enough concentration of negative ions in the air, they will attract to floating particles in large numbers. This causes the particle to become too heavy to remain airborne. As a result, the particle will drop out of the air, keeping them out of the breathing zone and out of the respiratory system where it can trigger breathing and health problems.
Then the pollutant particles can be collected by normal cleaning activities, such as dusting or vacuuming. If the particle are forced back up into the air it will again be ionized and quickly settled out of the breathing zone once again.
In nature, negative ions are generated by processes such as sunlight, lightening, waves from the ocean, and from waterfalls. “Concrete Jungles” minimize the natural production of negative ions by disrupting the delicate electrical balance between the atmosphere and the earth. Most ionizers recreates them with electrode pins (“needlepoints”) to electrically produce negative ions. This method produces a density that is many times higher than the negative ion level found at Niagara Falls, the highest natural producer of negative ions and one of the healthiest environments in the world.
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Posted by rohmat in Negative Ion, tags: benefit, brain, effect, health, journal, medicine, negative, negative ions, pharmacy, science
“Negative ions increase the flow of oxygen to the brain; resulting in higher alertness, decreased drowsiness, and more mental energy,” says Pierce J. Howard, PhD, author of The Owners Manual for the Brain: Everyday Applications from Mind Brain Research and director of research at the Center for Applied Cognitive Sciences in Charlotte, N.C.
“They also may protect against germs in the air, resulting in decreased irritation due to inhaling various particles that make you sneeze, cough, or have a throat irritation.
And for a whopping one in three of us who are sensitive to their effects, negative ions can make us feel like we are walking on air. You are one of them if you feel instantly refreshed the moment you open a window and breathe in fresh, humid air.
You may be one of them if you feel sleepy when you are around an air-conditioner, but feel immediately refreshed and invigorated when you step outside or roll down the car window,” Howard says. “Air conditioning depletes the atmosphere of negative ions, but an ion generator re-releases the ions that air conditioners remove.”
Negative ions are created in nature with air molecules broken apart from sunlight, radiation, and moving air or water. In
“The action of the pounding surf creates negative air ions and we also see it immediately after spring thunderstorms when people report lightened moods,” says ion researcher Michael Terman, PhD, of Columbia University in New York.
In a study conducted by Columbia University, 25 people with SAD (Seasonal Affective Depression) sat in front of a negative ion air purifier for a half hour every morning for a month. Half the subjects were given a low level of negative ions, and the other half a high level. The higher level of negative ion treatment proved to be as effective against SAD as antidepressants, such as Prozac and Zolof, and without the side effects of these drugs.
Negative ions are odorless tasteless molecules that are breathed into our respiratory system. High concentrations of negative ions can be found in nature in mountain forests, waterfalls, and beaches where people feel energized and invigorated, which helps relieve stress, alleviate depression, boost energy.
Studies Proving the Effectiveness of Negative Ions
Negative ions help prevent respiratory-related illnesses.
In a study conducted in a Swiss textile mill, negative ionizers were placed in two, 60’ by 60’ rooms, each containing 22 employees. In one room, the negative ion electronic air cleaner was turned on during the course of the study. In the other room, the negative ion air purifier was permanently turned off, although the employees in this room were led to believe they were working in a room enriched by negative ions. During this six-month study, a total of 22 sick days were lost by employees working in the room in which the negative ionizer was operating. In the room where the machine was not operating, a total of 64 days were lost to sickness. During a month-long flu epidemic, the first group lost a total of 3 days to sickness, while the second group lost a total of 40 days to sickness (Stark, 1971).
In a test involving a Swiss bank office, one group of 309 worked in a negative ion-treated environment. A second group of 362 worked in an untreated environment. Over the next several months, for every day lost to respiratory illness (cold, flu, laryngitis, etc.) in group one, 16 days were lost to respiratory illness in group two (Soyka, 1991).
In a Surrey University study at the Norwich Union Insurance Group headquarters, eight negative ion generators were placed in the computer and data preparation section. Before the test, the research team spent a month compiling incident rates for complaints of sickness and headaches. During the test in which the negative ion air purification systems were in operation, incidents of sickness and headaches were reduced by 78%. After testing was completed, the Norwich Union opted to keep the negative ion electronic air cleaners (Soyka, 1991).
Negative ions counteract the effects of smoking.
High levels of negative ions neutralize the effect that tobacco smoke has on the cilia. Cilia are the microscopic hairs located in the trachea that move rapidly back and forth to prevent pollutants and toxins from traveling into the vulnerable areas of the respiratory tract. The faster the cilia move, the more effective they are. However, tobacco smoke slows down the ciliary beat, diminishing the body’s ability to keep cancer-causing pollutants from entering the depths of the respiratory tract. Tests have shown though, that adding high levels of negative ions to the air accelerates the ciliary beat to normal levels (Soyka, 1991).
Negative ions are a natural anti-depressant and without the side effects.
In a study conducted by Columbia University, 25 people with SAD (Seasonal Affective Depression) sat in front of a negative ion air purifier for a half hour every morning for a month. Half the subjects were given a low level of negative ions, and the other half a high level. The higher level of negative ion treatment proved to be as effective against SAD as antidepressants, such as Prozac and Zolof, and without the side effects of these drugs (Finley, 1996).
Negative ions for a positive attitude.
Positive ions, which are found in abundance in most indoor environments, cause an overproduction of serotonin. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that helps the body deal with mental, emotional, and physiological stress. An overproduction initially causes hyperactivity, which rapidly leads to anxiety, and in some cases depression. Negative ion treatment has proven to be successful in reducing the overproduction of serotonin, and therefore successful in alleviating depression in some cases (Kreuger, 1957).
Negative Ions help us to sleep better.
In 1969, French researcher found that the overproduction of the neurohormone serotonin caused sleeplessness and nightmares. In using a negative ion electronic air cleaner to treat a group of people experiencing sleeping problems as a result of serotonin overproduction, he found that most of them were able to sleep better (Soyka, 1991).
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.
A recent study by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture found that ionizing a room led to 52% less dust in the air, and 95% less bacteria in the air (since many of the pollutants found in the air reside on floating dust particles).
The U.S.D.A. also performed another study to test the effectiveness of negative ionization at removing airborne Salmonella Enteritidis. The negative ions drastically reduced the airborne salmonella particles, prompting the following statement from the USDA:
“These results indicate that negative air ionization can have a significant impact on the airborne microbial load in a poultry house and at least a portion of this effect is through direct killing of the organisms.”
Good Housekeeping Magazine.
In March of 1999, Good Housekeeping Magazine had its engineers test an ionizer by using a smoke test, and found that it cleared out the smoke in a tank.
Agriculture Research Service (of USDA).
The Agriculture Research Service of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture tested the effectiveness of ionizers for removing dust in a poultry hatchery. The dust level is very high in such an environment. In this study, the use of an ionizer resulted in dust removal efficiencies that averaged between 81.1 and 92.2%. The airborne transmission of salmonella (to the eggs) was also significantly reduced as a result.
Journal of Hygiene.
Scientists showed that ionization reduced bacterial levels in burns and plastic surgery units by over 96% after a two week period, which results in much better and more rapid healing of patients.
Journal of Applied Microbiology.
The use of negative ions was even found by scientists to reduce the presence of airborne viruses by about 40%. A study featured in the 1987 issue also showed the negative ions are free from any adverse side effects.
A 1976 study featured in this publication provided evidence that negative ions can have a biologically lethal effect on airborne microorganisms.
Journal of Hygiene.
A 1979 study found that using negative ionization in the air protected chickens from airborne infection of the deadly Newcastle Disease Virus.
Journal of Food Protection.
A 2001 study found that airborne negative ionization was highly effective at destroying airborne and surface salmonella.
University of Medicine and Pharmacy (Romania).
A test on male rats showed that just moderate levels of negative ions increased the resistance of the rats, reducing or eliminating the effect of some chemicals.
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What Is “Negative Ions”?
“Ions” are charged particles. They are floating in the air around us all of the time and have either negative or positive charges. Ions that are negatively charged are called “negative ions” or “anions”. Ions that are positively charged are called “positive ions” or “cations”. The beneficial effect of negative ions is first known to human since more than one hundred years ago. However, actual implementation of negative ions in clinical medicine is only about 10 years, and the use of negative ions in daily healthcare products becomes popular only in the recent years.
Of all the gaseous molecules that make up the air, oxygen and carbon dioxide molecules have more power in gaining the electrons. In addition to that, oxygen occupies larger proportion in the air, resulting in formation of oxygen anions as the free electrons are captured by oxygen molecules. As such, the so called “negative ions” actually means cluster of negatively charged oxygen molecules. This cluster of molecules usually comprised of not more than 12 gaseous molecules surrounding the charged oxygen molecule. Water molecule is also one of the most easily ionized molecules. In environment with abundant water molecules such as waterfall, negative ion exists as negatively charged water molecules (with hydroxyl ion attached to water molecules).
Ions in the air can be divided into three categories : small, medium and large ions. Only the small ions are biological active as they are small enough and able to penetrate and enter human body to result in health effect.
How Is Negative Ions Produced?
Ions can be generated when a large amount of energy is applied to an atom or a molecule. Negative ions are created in nature with air molecules broken apart by UV radiation from sunlight, cosmic radiation, radioactive substances, thunderstorm, waterfall and sea waves. Plants that carry out photosynthesis are also able to generate negative ions. Under this natural phenomenon, negative ions are created and diminished continuously, maintaining at a dynamic balance state.
Our earth surface is possessing negative charge under the effect of the ionosphere layer of the atmosphere, resulting in repelling of negative ions out of earth surface and attraction of positive ions towards earth surface. As such, under normal condition, earth surface has higher concentration of positive ions than negative ions, with a positive to negative ions ratio of more than 1, and the ion counts are usually about 400-700/cm3. When the concentration of positive ions are much more than negative ions, that is when our health are affected. The known best environment for health is waterfall where negative ions concentration exceeding positive ions with a ratio of about 2 to 1.
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